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APPLYING FOR MEDICINE
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Gas exchange takes place inside the alveoil of your lungs explain how the presence of alveoli results in an efficient surface for gas exchange?

The alveoli are the sites of gas exchanges. This means that the gases oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged (or swapped). Oxygen is breathed in from the air and enters the lungs and into the blood. It is used in respiration which is a chemical process that produces energy as well as waste products carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide needs to be removed from the body. Build up of carbon dioxide is dangerous as it can affect blood pH. Carbon dioxide is removed by transporting it in the blood to the lungs where it can be breathed out. The movement of the gases are in the following: Oxygen : air -> lungs -> alveoli -> blood -> cells Carbon dioxide: cells -> blood -> alveoli -> lungs -> air Note that alveoli are structures inside the lungs. Inhalation and exhalation allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to enter and leave the body. The two gases oxygen and carbon dioxide move according to diffusion. Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Another definition is the movement of particles down their concentration gradients. A concentration gradient is the difference is concentration between two point. The bigger the difference, the steeper the concentration gradient, the faster the diffusion. The alveoli are sac like structures and appear in clusters at the end of bronchioles. They have a number of adaptions that make them good at gas exchange which are the following. 1. Alveoli have a large surface area. There are lots of them so lots of sites of exchange. 2. They have a good blood supply. Each alveoli is surrounded by capillaries. Capillaries carry the oxygen away. This means there is a much higher concentration of oxygen inside the alveoli and low concentration in the capillary maintaining a steep concentration gradient. The opposite applies to carbon dioxide. There is a high concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and low concentration in the alveoli so the carbon dioxide diffuse from the blood into the alveoli where it can then be removed through exhalation. The blood supply allows a steep concentration gradient to be maintained. 3. The alveoli have walls that are one cell thick. This means that there is a short diffusion distance. The gases do not have to move very far to be exchanged. In addition capillary wall is also one cell thick. 4. Alveoli are moist. This allows oxygen to easily dissolve and diffuse. I hope this answers your question.

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I am an approachable incoming 2nd year medical student at University College London (UCL). I am a 2021 graduate of Dulwich College where I was also Vice-Captain in my final year and my responsibilities included liaising with the Academic Team about the curriculum and supporting students progressing up the College with their studies. I achieved all A*s at GCSE, and A*A*A*A* in Biology, Chemistry, Maths and Latin at A Level respectively. Throughout my career at the College, I was fortunate to gain experience early on in mentoring and working with those struggling with their studies at several local schools across Southwark. On a weekday lunchtime for two years, I would give up an hour to spend time working through areas students found challenging. I recently mentored a disengaged and shy Year 10 pupil; actively listening to his problems and building trust were essential to improving his academic progress, which was humbling. I have always taken a great interest in Biology, Chemistry, Maths & Latin (my A Level subjects) from the beginning. During the months leading up to the Latin GCSE exam, I would compile resources for my class and go through important concepts with both friends and my class. Knowledge has always been something that should be shared to me, and I believe that it is possible for anyone to achieve the top grades if they are motivated, diligent, and guided methodically. Tutoring and helping others maximise their full academic potential has always been something that I have enjoyed. I am extremely passionate in offering support in the respective subject, but also in providing a more holistic approach. I am keen to discuss revision techniques, share experiences and direct students/parents to resources at schools that they may not be aware of. It was only a few months ago that I was at school, and I can appreciate the demands it can place on students. I am also keen to help those applying for medicine or Year 7/9 entry to independent schools – I went through this rigorous process not long ago, and there is a lot I have taken away in the process. I would love to help and guide anyone who is interested. I also help students with medical school applications, and offers have been secured at universities such as UCL and Edinburgh. Ever since I started my GCSEs, I knew I would love to tutor students once I finish my A Levels and graduate from Dulwich College. I currently tutor five students across London and the Home Counties – two in GCSE and three in KS3. I have just finished tutoring two students right the way through from the Year 10 summer to their last GCSE exam. *I am currently recruiting students for 2022-23*. Thank you for reading, and I would be delighted to help your son/daughter. Tutoring Approach: I am extremely organised, and tailor lessons according to the relevant specifications. With the increase in online students due to the pandemic, I am very confident in using video conference to tutor and Microsoft applications to create resources. My teaching style is based around first gaining an overview and understanding of the topic, and then moving to exam questions to identify any misunderstandings or gaps in knowledge. As a medic, I try to incorporate real-life examples when teaching topics to make lessons more engaging and interesting. Active recall and spaced repetition form an essential element of my teaching. The use of examiner’s reports and mark schemes are also vital in this process. As a student, I would always endeavour to be ‘one-step ahead’ and I have been keen to pass this onto my students – be it noticing common patterns in exam questions, specific terminology that exam boards like or observing common pitfalls. Experience Tutoring Experience: Over 140 hours tutored (since June 2021) I have been involved in several tutoring programmes at Dulwich College, which included tutoring a student in Latin GCSE in my final year. I would often run sessions within my class where we would go through material. At UCL, I have completed a module and workshop which explores teaching methods. Academic Experience: A Levels at Dulwich College (2021): 4A*s in Biology, Chemistry, Maths & Latin. A* in EPQ. UCAT & BMAT (2020) GCSEs at Dulwich College (2019): x9 Grade 9s, x1 Grade 8 & A in Additional Maths Common Entrance at Homefield Preparatory School (2016) Comments: ‘I have tremendous admiration for the manner with which Rohan approaches his studies. He is a conscientious and mature student who always produces work to the best of his ability.’ ‘Rohan’s organisation and work ethic shines through. The overall picture is that Rohan is well on course to achieving the top grades at A Level.’ ‘He is eager for challenge and goes beyond the course materials provided to find additional questions to work on.’ ‘He is a conscientious young man who is determined to succeed in all he does. I have been particularly impressed with the extra work he has done of his own volition to consolidate his knowledge of the topics covered to date and also to learn from any slight errors in his answers.’ ‘I have been incredibly impressed by Rohan's motivation this year. Not only has he dealt with the challenge of completing the AS [Latin] course in a small number of periods a week, he has also learnt all the material to an exceptionally high standard.’ ‘It has been a delight working with Rohan this term. He is an extremely hard working and motivated pupil, and our lessons are always very productive. He is focused, industrious and proactive, creating and maintaining a fantastic [Latin] OneNote with all the course resources.’

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