Asked by LilasBiology 🌱

Explain the effects of smoking and obesity has on developing a cardiovascular disease?

Profile picture

Tony Kaffer

Currently in my final year studying Physics and Philosophy (MPhysPhil) at Oxford

With regards to obesity, you'd also want to consider the impact of high circulating glucose and the impact of diabetes and it's complications, such as eye problems (retinopathy) and foot problems (neuropathy)

Profile picture

Tony Kaffer

Currently in my final year studying Physics and Philosophy (MPhysPhil) at Oxford

This is a broad question on which many articles have been written, but a brief summary is here: Smoking: cigarettes contain a myriad of chemicals, including tar and various other cancer-causing chemicals. These can lead to problems in the lung, such as the development of lung cancer (carcinoma), bronchial carcinoma and a variety of other problems. Smoking can also increase the risk of strokes, and is a risk factor for heart attacks, angina, high blood pressure and DVTs. Obesity is a recent epidemic and is usually measured by the body mass index (weight/(height in metres)^2. ) of above 30. It can cause a variety of problems like high blood pressure and high cholesterol, which can lead to the development of atherosclerosis (build up of fatty tissue inside blood vessels). Atherosclerosis in vessels such as the coronary arteries can cause heart attacks (disruption in blood flow to the heart muscle ), whilst deposition in cerebral arteries or vessels leading to the brain can lead to strokes or transient ischaemic attacks, with life threatening consequences. Hope that helps!

Answers from these tutors

Asked in Biology 🌱

ASKED BY XXALDIDXX

BIOLOGY 🌱

What is photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that happens in the leaves of a plant to food for it to survive. Photosynthesis takes place in the part of the...

ASKED BY ELLIE

BIOLOGY 🌱

Do the cells in an asexual reproduction divide by mitosis or meiosi?

They would divide by mitosis. Examples include budding, hydras, vegetative propagation and strawberries. ...

ASKED BY JESS

BIOLOGY 🌱

How do you work out the percentage of someone with blue eyes from a genetic diagram? (BB, BB, BB in a table?

If it’s just one characteristic the table is referred to as a monohybrid cross, so there should be four possible outcomes. For example if the parent...

ASKED BY ROSS

BIOLOGY 🌱

Why is it necessary men having more red blood cells per cubic millimeter of blood than women?

Hi, women have reproductive cyclefor every 30days so they loose RBC.Thus less RBC are found in female mammals...

ASKED BY JAKE

BIOLOGY 🌱

What is a eukaryote ?

A eukaryote is a cell (can also be a single cell organism) that has a membrane bound nucleus, organelles (little organs) and linear chromosomes (com...

ASKED BY FATMA

BIOLOGY 🌱

Where and how does pH affect carbohydrases?

Carbohydrases are enzymes that break down carbohydrates into smaller sugar molecules. They are usually made in the the pancreas and released into th...

ASKED BY FATMA

BIOLOGY 🌱

What happens to the fatty acids and glycerol once absorbed into the epithelium?

These two products of fat digestion, once absorbed by the epithelial cells of the small intestine, are re-formed and into triglycerides whilst insid...

ASKED BY PHOEBE-LILY

BIOLOGY 🌱

Why is eating a healthy, balanced diet so important to the body?

Eating a healthy, balanced diet is an important part of maintaining good health, and can help you feel your best. This means eating a wide variety o...

ASKED BY SOPHIE

BIOLOGY 🌱

What is Genetic Engineering?

Genetic engineering refers to direct manipulation process of the DNA to alter the characteristics of an organism (this can be of an animal, plant or...

ASKED BY YASHVI

BIOLOGY 🌱

Why are stem cells (from bone marrow) able to repair damaged heart tissue?

Stem cells are unspecialised cells that can differentiate and be used to repair various tissues, including heart one. When used in medical intervent...

Find me a tutor

We take your privacy seriously. View our policy.