Explain the effects of smoking and obesity has on developing a cardiovascular disease?
With regards to obesity, you'd also want to consider the impact of high circulating glucose and the impact of diabetes and it's complications, such as eye problems (retinopathy) and foot problems (neuropathy)
This is a broad question on which many articles have been written, but a brief summary is here: Smoking: cigarettes contain a myriad of chemicals, including tar and various other cancer-causing chemicals. These can lead to problems in the lung, such as the development of lung cancer (carcinoma), bronchial carcinoma and a variety of other problems. Smoking can also increase the risk of strokes, and is a risk factor for heart attacks, angina, high blood pressure and DVTs. Obesity is a recent epidemic and is usually measured by the body mass index (weight/(height in metres)^2. ) of above 30. It can cause a variety of problems like high blood pressure and high cholesterol, which can lead to the development of atherosclerosis (build up of fatty tissue inside blood vessels). Atherosclerosis in vessels such as the coronary arteries can cause heart attacks (disruption in blood flow to the heart muscle ), whilst deposition in cerebral arteries or vessels leading to the brain can lead to strokes or transient ischaemic attacks, with life threatening consequences. Hope that helps!
Ask a question
Get an answer in 5 minutes from expert tutors at Oxford, Cambridge, Imperial and more.