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The human body has a range of defenses from physical and chemical to molecular. This includes the skin as a physical barrier. The innate immune system is specialised to combat pathogenic infection in a nonspecific fashion. The complement system is worth a read about! Also, the cellular defense is vital - with innate cells such as macrophages and neutrophils to adaptive cells such as B cells and T cells. The different defense systems differ to each other dependent on what is the foreign object being attacked I. E. Fungus, bacteria, virus etc. This question is very broad and can even lead down the road of intracellular defense systems, such as lysosomes. I'd recommend starting from large scale to a small scale.
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