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The present perfect tense describes actions that occurred in the past, i.e. before now, and in an uncertain or undefined/open time period. Events it applies to can be incomplete, unspecified or recurring. Cover: 1. Why and when the present perfect is used (see https://www.ef.co.uk/english-resources/english-grammar/present-perfect/ for a good list). Contrast it with usage of the simple past tense alongside how and why they differ (simple past is used for definite i.e. specific/complete/finished actions). 2. How the present perfect is used in terms of formation; to have + past participle of main verb. I think the best way of explaining it for someone to understand is by asking them to look at the sentence in which it is used as a whole, and asking: - Is the action/event complete/finished? If Y, use simple past unless: 1. The emphasis is on the action with no specific period; “I have seen this (before)” 2. The named period in which it happened is still ongoing; “this” + time word, as in “I have practiced this month”. Also, use with “since (date)” or “for (period)” 3. The action/event is linked to what is currently happening; “I have moved (and am happy/have more space)” 4. The action/event took place recently (it has “just” happened) Here is a diagram of its usage: https://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/support-files/present-perfect-infographic.pdf I hope this helps a bit to give you some ideas!
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