Asked by BakkarGeography 🗺

What is the PAR model? Explain each step?

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David Mageller

If you love what you do, you'll never work a day in your life - Someone

The Pressure and Release (PAR) model understands a disaster as the intersection between socio-economic pressure and physical exposure. It was developed by Blaikie et al. (1994). The starting point of the pressure and release model is that a disaster is the intersection of two opposing forces: the process generating vulnerability on one side, and the physical exposure to hazard on the other. Increasing pressure can come from either side but vulnerability has to be reduced to relieve the pressure. Vulnerability is considered in three levels: root causes, dynamic pressures and unsafe conditions. For the sake of your exams, you shoud be able to refer to many factors, , such as globalisation and the growth of cities with high population densities in the developing world, which can both increase hazard risk and decrease resilience. A few more evaluation points you can consider: The strengths of the model are that it provides a broad view of vulnerability, it gives weight to natural hazards, and it provides a framework for looking at livelihoods and vulnerability. The limitation of the model, is that it is a tool for explaining vulnerability, not for measuring it. The model cannot be applied operationally without a great deal of data collection and analysis.

Profile picture

David Mageller

If you love what you do, you'll never work a day in your life - Someone

The Pressure and Release (PAR) model understands a disaster as the intersection between socio-economic pressure and physical exposure. It was developed by Blaikie et al. (1994). The starting point of the pressure and release model is that a disaster is the intersection of two opposing forces: the process generating vulnerability on one side, and the physical exposure to hazard on the other. Increasing pressure can come from either side but vulnerability has to be reduced to relieve the pressure. Vulnerability is considered in three levels: root causes, dynamic pressures and unsafe conditions. For the sake of your exams, you shoud be able to refer to many factors, , such as globalisation and the growth of cities with high population densities in the developing world, which can both increase hazard risk and decrease resilience. A few more evaluation points you can consider: The strengths of the model are that it provides a broad view of vulnerability, it gives weight to natural hazards, and it provides a framework for looking at livelihoods and vulnerability. The limitation of the model, is that it is a tool for explaining vulnerability, not for measuring it. The model cannot be applied operationally without a great deal of data collection and analysis.

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