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HISTORY
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By the end of Reconstruction, what means were used to disenfranchise African Americans?

A series of measures passed by state governments, informally known as the “Jim Crow laws” Jim Crow included the introduction of strict literacy tests, residency requirements and poll taxes to make it harder for African Americans (who were given poorer education and were generally poorer) to register to vote. Jim Crow also often refers to the mandating of segregation of public services (most notably education) and allowing private businesses to do the same.

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