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The First World War was preceded by the industrial revolution. The range of new technologies created was huge, and the ability to weaponise these technologies came along with it. Germany had a well-developed chemical industry by 1914, and, was able to produce (and use) possibly the most infamous of the new technologies in The Great War, poison gas. The other prominent innovation was the tank. The tank relied on the internal combustion engine to move, and so wasn’t able to exist before advances in engineering allowed the creation of an engine that was small enough to fit into a tank, but powerful enough to allow the tank to move. Some general advances in gunpowder technology meant there were higher quality rifles available than previously, and that troops could fire many more rounds per minute than with older firearms. I hope this helps!