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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 1

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Chapter 10 Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational Databases

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 3 Chapter Outline Informal Design Guidelines for Relational Databases Functional Dependencies (FDs) Normalization of Relations and Different Normal Forms

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 4 Informal Design Guidelines for Relational Databases (1) What is relational database design? The grouping of attributes to form "good" relation schemas Two levels of relation schemas The logical "user view" level The storage "base relation" level Design is concerned mainly with base relations What are the criteria for "good" base relations?

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 5 Informal Design Guidelines for Relational Databases (2) We first discuss informal guidelines for good relational design Then we discuss formal concepts of functional dependencies and normal forms - 1NF (First Normal Form) - 2NF (Second Normal Form) - 3NF (Third Normal Form) - BCNF (Boyce-Codd Normal Form)

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 6 Semantics of the Relation Attributes GUIDELINE 1: Informally, each tuple in a relation should represent one entity or relationship instance. Attributes of different entities (EMPLOYEEs, DEPARTMENTs, PROJECTs) should not be mixed in the same relation Only foreign keys should be used to refer to other entities Entity and relationship attributes should be kept apart as much as possible. Bottom Line: Design a schema that can be explained easily relation by relation. The semantics of attributes should be easy to interpret.

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 7 A simplified COMPANY relational database schema

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 8 Redundant Information in Tuples and Update Anomalies Redundant Information causes: storage wastage problems with update anomalies Insertion anomalies Deletion anomalies Modification anomalies

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 9 Two relation schemas suffering from storage wastage and update anomalies

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 10 Example States for EMP_DEPT and EMP_PROJ

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 11 EXAMPLE OF AN UPDATE ANOMALY Consider the relation: EMP_PROJ(Emp#, Proj#, Ename, Pname, No_hours) Update Anomaly: Changing the name of project number P1 from “Billing” to “Customer-Accounting” may cause this update to be made for all 100 employees working on project P1.

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 12 EXAMPLE OF AN INSERT ANOMALY Consider the relation: EMP_PROJ(Emp#, Proj#, Ename, Pname, No_hours) Insert Anomaly: Cannot insert a project unless an employee is assigned to it. Conversely Cannot insert an employee unless he/she is assigned to a project.

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 13 EXAMPLE OF AN DELETE ANOMALY Consider the relation: EMP_PROJ(Emp#, Proj#, Ename, Pname, No_hours) Delete Anomaly: When a project is deleted, it will result in deleting all the employees who work on that project. Alternately, if an employee is the sole employee on a project, deleting that employee would result in deleting the corresponding project.

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 14 Guideline to Redundant Information in Tuples and Update Anomalies GUIDELINE 2: Design a schema that does not suffer from the insertion, deletion and update anomalies. If there are any anomalies present, then note them so that applications can be made to take them into account.

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 15 Null Values in Tuples GUIDELINE 3: Relations should be designed such that their tuples will have as few NULL values as possible Attributes that are NULL frequently could be placed in separate relations (with the primary key) Nulls are problematic in joins and aggregate functions Many interpretations for nulls: Attribute not applicable or invalid Attribute value unknown (may exist) Value known to exist, but unavailable

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 16 Spurious Tuples Bad designs for a relational database may result in erroneous results for certain JOIN operations GUIDELINE 4: Design relation schemas so that they can be joined with equality conditions on attributes that are (primary key, foreign key) pairs in a way that guarantees that no spurious tuples are generated. No spurious tuples should be generated by doing a natural-join of any relations.

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 17

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 18

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 19 Functional Dependencies (1) Functional dependencies (FDs) Are constraints that are derived from the meaning and interrelationships of the data attributes Are used to specify formal measures of the "goodness" of relational designs A set of attributes X functionally determines a set of attributes Y if the value of X determines a unique value for Y

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 20 Functional Dependencies (2) X -> Y holds if whenever two tuples have the same value for X, they must have the same value for Y For any two tuples t1 and t2 in any relation instance r(R): If t1[X]=t2[X], then t1[Y]=t2[Y] X -> Y in R specifies a constraint on all relation instances r(R) Written as X -> Y; can be displayed graphically on a relation schema as in Figures. ( denoted by the arrow: ). FDs are derived from the real-world constraints on the attributes If K is a key of R, then K functionally determines all attributes in R since we never have two distinct tuples with t1[K]=t2[K])

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 21 Examples of FD constraints Social security number determines employee name SSN -> ENAME Project number determines project name and location PNUMBER -> {PNAME, PLOCATION} Employee ssn and project number determines the hours per week that the employee works on the project {SSN, PNUMBER} -> HOURS

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 22 Inference Rules for FDs Given a set of FDs F, we can infer additional FDs that hold whenever the FDs in F hold Armstrong's inference rules: IR1. (Reflexive) If Y subset-of X, then X -> Y IR2. (Augmentation) If X -> Y, then XZ -> YZ (Notation: XZ stands for X U Z) IR3. (Transitive) If X -> Y and Y -> Z, then X -> Z Some additional inference rules that are useful: Decomposition: If X -> YZ, then X -> Y and X -> Z Union: If X -> Y and X -> Z, then X -> YZ Psuedotransitivity: If X -> Y and WY -> Z, then WX -> Z The last three inference rules, as well as any other inference rules, can be deduced from IR1, IR2, and IR3 (completeness property)

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 23 Normalization of Relations Normalization: The process of decomposing unsatisfactory "bad" relations by breaking up their attributes into smaller relations Normal form: Condition using keys and FDs of a relation to certify whether a relation schema is in a particular normal form Normal form of a relation is the highest NF condition that it meets, and hence indicates the degree to which it has been normalized 2NF, 3NF, BCNF based on keys and FDs of a relation schema 4NF based on keys, multi-valued dependencies : MVDs 5NF based on keys, join dependencies : JDs

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 24 Definitions of Keys and Attributes Participating in Keys (1) A superkey of a relation schema R = {A1, A2,...., An} is a set of attributes S subset-of R with the property that no two tuples t1 and t2 in any legal relation state r of R will have t1[S] = t2[S] A key K is a superkey with the additional property that removal of any attribute from K will cause K not to be a superkey any more.

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 25 Definitions of Keys and Attributes Participating in Keys (2) If a relation schema has more than one key, each is called a candidate key. One of the candidate keys is arbitrarily designated to be the primary key, and the others are called secondary keys. A Prime attribute must be a member of some candidate key A Nonprime attribute is not a prime attribute— that is, it is not a member of any candidate key.

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 26 First Normal Form Disallows composite attributes multivalued attributes nested relations; attributes whose values for an individual tuple are non-atomic Considered to be part of the definition of relation

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 27 Normalization into 1NF

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 28 Normalization of nested relations into 1NF

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 29 Second Normal Form (1) Uses the concepts of FDs, primary key Definitions Prime attribute: An attribute that is member of the primary key K Full functional dependency: a FD Y -> Z where removal of any attribute from Y means the FD does not hold any more Examples: {SSN, PNUMBER} -> HOURS is a full FD since neither SSN -> HOURS nor PNUMBER -> HOURS hold {SSN, PNUMBER} -> ENAME is not a full FD (it is called a partial dependency ) since SSN -> ENAME also holds

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 30 Second Normal Form (2) A relation schema R is in second normal form (2NF) if every non-prime attribute A in R is fully functionally dependent on the primary key R can be decomposed into 2NF relations via the process of 2NF normalization

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 31 Normalizing into 2NF

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 32 Third Normal Form (1) Definition: Transitive functional dependency: a FD X -> Z that can be derived from two FDs X -> Y and Y -> Z Examples: SSN -> DMGRSSN is a transitive FD Since SSN -> DNUMBER and DNUMBER -> DMGRSSN hold SSN -> ENAME is non-transitive Since there is no set of attributes X where SSN -> X and X -> ENAME

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 33 Third Normal Form (2) A relation schema R is in third normal form (3NF) if it is in 2NF and no non-prime attribute A in R is transitively dependent on the primary key R can be decomposed into 3NF relations via the process of 3NF normalization NOTE: In X -> Y and Y -> Z, with X as the primary key, we consider this a problem only if Y is not a candidate key. When Y is a candidate key, there is no problem with the transitive dependency. E.g., Consider EMP (SSN, Emp#, Salary ). Here, SSN -> Emp# -> Salary and Emp# is a candidate key.

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 34 Normalizing into 3NF

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 35 Normal Forms Defined Informally 1 st normal form All attributes depend on the key 2 nd normal form All attributes depend on the whole key 3 rd normal form All attributes depend on nothing but the key

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 36 General Normal Form Definitions (1) The above definitions consider the primary key only The following more general definitions take into account relations with multiple candidate keys A relation schema R is in second normal form (2NF) if every non-prime attribute A in R is fully functionally dependent on every key of R

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 37 General Normal Form Definitions (2) Definition: Superkey of relation schema R - a set of attributes S of R that contains a key of R A relation schema R is in third normal form (3NF) if whenever a FD X -> A holds in R, then either: (a) X is a superkey of R, or (b) A is a prime attribute of R NOTE: Boyce-Codd normal form disallows condition (b) above

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 38 Normalization into General 2NF and 3NF

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 39 BCNF (Boyce-Codd Normal Form) A relation schema R is in Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF) if whenever an FD X -> A holds in R, then X is a superkey of R Each normal form is strictly stronger than the previous one Every 2NF relation is in 1NF Every 3NF relation is in 2NF Every BCNF relation is in 3NF There exist relations that are in 3NF but not in BCNF The goal is to have each relation in BCNF (or 3NF)

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 40 Boyce-Codd normal form

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 41 A relation TEACH that is in 3NF but not in BCNF fd1: { student, course} -> instructor fd2: instructor -> course

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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Slide 10- 42 Achieving the BCNF by Decomposition Two FDs exist in the relation TEACH: fd1: { student, course} -> instructor fd2: instructor -> course {student, course} is a candidate key for this relation and that the dependencies shown follow the pattern in Figure 10.12 (b). So this relation is in 3NF but not in BCNF A relation NOT in BCNF should be decomposed so as to meet this property. {instructor, course } and {instructor, student}

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