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The following are chemical entities identifiable during qualitative analysis: i. SO 2− 4 ii. H3O+ iii. NH + 4 iv. OH− Which of them can be detected by litmus paper? Options A) ii and iv only B) ii only C) i and iii only D) iv?

Litmus paper is used to determine if a substance is acid or an alkaline. So for this question you have to ask your self which one of the options are an acid or alkaline. i. SO4^-2 is neither an acid or base. ii. H3O^+ is in fact a hydrated hydrogen ion therefore it is an acid. iii. NH4^+ is an acid as it can release a H+ ion into solution iv. OH- is alkaline. Therefore, it can be between ii, iii and iv. This is not an option given. So I order to eliminate further possible answer; for NH4^+ to be tested using litmus paper you would require NaOH as a reagent- ii and iv does not require this. So that cancels this out option iii. The answer is A. Definitions of: -Acid: a substance that releases a H+ ion in solution. -Base: a substance that releases OH- ions in solution. Hopefully this makes sense, if not feel free to pop up and message me for further guidance!

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