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Since you mentioned you are a beginner, I won't bombard you with unnecessary jargon. On the very basic level, all you need to understand is that the: 1. Strength of gravitational field you're in, 2. Your velocity can have an effect on how 'fast' time progresses for you. The faster you are, the slower time travels for you (and faster for your surroundings). The stronger gravitational field you're in, the slower time travels for you (and faster for your surroundings). This is why you may have heard, that scientists on the space station are slightly 'from the past', since time travels a little slower on the International Space Station.
Special relativity: This is based on two assumptions. 1. Laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames. 2. Speed of light is the same for all observers. From this it can be mathematically shown that there is no such thing as absolute time or absolute space. Space and time are relative. This means time and space can contract or dilate depending how fast you are travelling with respect to an observer. General Relativity: This is the idea that gravity is manifestation of space bending and curving. It replaced the Newtonian description of gravity. General relativity predicts a lot of things Newtonian gravity doesn't such as the bending of light, time dilation
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