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Asked by Timothy

Use practical examples to differentiate between Norm-referenced testing and Criterion-referenced testing?

Norm referencing is normally a nationally set exam where the grade boundaries are set *after* all the exams have been marked, for example GCSEs and A Levels. The boundaries are based on the population and are moved slightly each year so they produce similar numbers of people for each grade. Results normally resemble a bell curve. Criterion referencing is where a candidate is judged on their work against a set of grade criteria, with no reference to what other people do. These courses will normally be assessed by coursework and some exams, but not always. Examples include Btecs, a driving practical test and even PhDs.

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Dan Phillips
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